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Установите соответствие между текстами A–G и заголовками 1–8. Запишите свои ответы в таблицу. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании один заголовок лишний.
1. The history of taming
2. Comparing the two species
3. A beautiful place to be saved
4. Reasons to domesticate cows
5. The evolution of bison
6. Born to be wild
7. Safer than before, but not enough
8. Failed attempts to protect
A.It is likely that the modern European bison arose from the steppe bison. Recent research says it appeared as a result of an interbreeding event between the steppe bison and the ancestor of modern cows around 120,000 years ago. At
one point, some steppe bison crossbred with the ancestors of the modern yak. After that, a population of steppe bison crossed the Bering Land Bridge to North America. Then the steppe bison spread through the northern parts of North America, where it lived until around 8,000 years ago..
B. The Prioksko-Terrasny Nature Reserve is one of the smallest in Russia. It covers an area of 4,960 hectares on the terraces of the Oka River valley. This is a unique area with its natural diversity of pine and mixed forests, small rivers, streams and marshes. Here you can observe the life of animals and birds in their natural habitat. The symbol of the reserve is a bison. This is a wild forest bull, which was recently on the verge of extinction. Bison youngsters grown up to two years in the reserve are sent to replenish free-living populations.
C. Though the American and European bisons are close relatives, it is easy to spot clear differences in their behaviour and build. Adult European bisons are slimmer in build and have longer legs. European bisons tend to graze less and walk around more than their American relatives. This difference in behaviour is reflected in their build. The American bison’s head hangs lower than the European’s does. American bisons are more easily tamed than their European cousins are. They also breed with domestic cattle more readily.
D. American bisons are known for living on the Great Plains. Bisons were hunted close to extinction during the 19th and 20th centuries, but have since rebounded. The European bison owes its survival, in part, to the Chernobyl disaster. Ironically, the Chernobyl Zone has become a kind of wildlife preserve, though poaching has become a threat in recent years. The American Plains bison is no longer listed as endangered, but this does not mean the species is safe. Their fragmented herds call for active conservation measures.
E. In the middle of the 19th century people started realising how important the buffalo was. Reasons for that included not only animal cruelty, but also ecological and future resources. Someone needed to speak out, and over the years they did, but never enough at one time to count. The real extermination of the buffalo was caused by the demands of trade, aided by hunters and Indians. However, the blame really lies with the government, which in all those years permitted a few ignorant Congressmen to block the laws protecting these animals.
F. There have been several attempts to tame the buffalo, but there are a few things that stand in the way. The buffalo is very aggressive by nature; it can run up to 40 mph and can jump vertically in the air almost their entire height. Imagine trying to teach an angry, prancing sedan to stay still and respect you. All that said, there have been instances of domestic buffalo. This is possible if they are raised from calves to be only with humans. Even then, they seem to be loyal and friendly with a small set of humans, not all humans.
G. At about the same time they domesticated plants, people in Mesopotamia began to domesticate animals for meat, milk, and hides. Hides were used for clothing, storing things and for building tent shelters. Goats were probably the first animals to be domesticated, followed closely by sheep. Later, people began domesticating larger animals, such as oxen or horses, for ploughing and transportation. These are known as beasts of burden. The easiest animals to domesticate are herbivores that graze on grass, because they are the easiest to feed.
Прочитайте текст и заполните пропуски A–F частями предложений, обозначенными цифрами 1–7. Одна из частей в списке 1–7 — лишняя. Занесите цифры, обозначающие соответствующие части предложений, в таблицу.
Gorky Park in Moscow is one of the best recreational places. Moscow’s main city escape is not a conventional expanse of nature preserved inside the urban jungle. It is not a fun fair either, A_______________________. Its official name says it all — Gorky’s Central Park of Culture and Leisure. That is exactly what it provides: culture and leisure in all shapes and forms. It especially attracts those B_______________________. However, people who prefer peaceful places can sail boats or catamaran or take a walk to Neskuchny Garden, located nearby. Here one can always find a quiet place.
The first recreational park of Russia was opened on the 12th of August 1928. It was designed by avant-garde architect Konstantin Melnikov. There were exhibition pavilions, tennis courts, a decorative pool and attractions for kids. There was not such a place C_______________________. The park was given the name of famous Soviet writer Maxim Gorky in 1932. Since then it has been called Gorky Park.
Nowadays, Gorky Park is the central park of Moscow D_______________________ 20 thousand people on weekdays and more than 100 thousand on weekends and holidays. Since 2011 Gorky Park has become the first world-class amusement park in Russia with space for rest, sport, dancing and games outside. The park offers free entrance, wi-fi coverage, as well E_______________________. It is a perfect place for an active holiday, with many things to do. Gorky Park now serves F_______________________, a point of attraction for youth and families.
1. as newly designed recreational zones
2. though the park used to be one
3. who enjoys cultural events and shows
4. as a true centre of city life
5. as this park in the world at the time
6. and is attended by more than
7. who like fun and entertainment
It often seems to foreigners that British food …
1) hasn’t been cooked long enough.
2) often tastes too hot and spicy.
3) doesn’t include raw vegetables.
4) is lacking in variety of dishes.
According to Pete Phrase, the British haven’t invented complex recipes because they …
1) appreciate the original taste of the products.
2) use a variety of sauces and spices for flavour.
3) prefer to use mainly basic ingredients.
4) always choose only fresh components.
Which statement is NOT true according to Pete Phrase?
1) The English are good at cooking.
2) The English prefer home cooked dishes.
3) Foreigners know few English dishes.
4) Prices in English restaurants are low.
The word this in Paragraph 4 (“... this is because we have no “cuisine” ourselves ...”) refers to the fact that …
1) the British share their dishes with the world.
2) all the best food in Britain is foreign.
3) various foreign food is available in London.
4) there are a lot of immigrants in Britain.
American journalist Bill Marsano implies that …
1) while travelling the British suffered from hunger.
2) the life of the British at home used to be very hard.
3) the British initially conquered lands to get better food.
4) the creation of the British empire was a long process..
The word substantial (“Dinner is always the most substantial meal ...”) in Paragraph 7 is synonymous to …
The main aim of the text is to …
1) give food for thought.
2) advertise British food.
3) criticise foreign cuisines.
4) disprove stereotypes.
Преобразуйте, если это необходимо, слово «SPEAK» так, чтобы оно грамматически соответствовало содержанию текста.
The most commonly used language in the United States is English, which is the de facto national language. Nonetheless, many other languages __________________ in the United States.
Преобразуйте, если это необходимо, слово THIS так, чтобы оно грамматически соответствовало содержанию текста.
__________________ include indigenous languages, languages brought to the country by colonists, enslaved people
and immigrants from Europe, Africa and Asia.
Преобразуйте, если это необходимо, слово TWO так, чтобы оно грамматически соответствовало содержанию текста.
Spanish, of course, is the __________________ most commonly spoken language in the United States. However, few
people realise that after English and Spanish Chinese is spoken regularly in more American homes than any other language.
Преобразуйте, если это необходимо, слово WRITE так, чтобы оно грамматически соответствовало содержанию текста.
On January 10, 1845, Robert Browning, a little-known poet and playwright, sent a letter to Elizabeth Barrett, an internationally renowned poet, an invalid, after reading her volume of poetry. Over the course of the next 20 months, they __________________ each other close to 600 letters.
Преобразуйте, если это необходимо, слово GREAT так, чтобы оно грамматически соответствовало содержанию текста.
It is one of the __________________ literary correspondences of all time.
Преобразуйте, если это необходимо, слово LEAVE так, чтобы оно грамматически соответствовало содержанию текста.
The couple’s last letter was exchanged on September 18, 1846, the night before the two __________________ for a trip to Italy and two weeks after their secret marriage.
Преобразуйте, если это необходимо, слово THEY так, чтобы оно грамматически соответствовало содержанию текста.
__________________ romance, which Elizabeth credited with saving her life, lasted for 15 years and spawned some of the world’s most beautiful poetry.
Образуйте от слова CONVENIENT однокоренное слово так, чтобы оно грамматически и лексически соответствовало содержанию текста.
The Vancouver Aquarium is a public aquarium. It is __________________ located in Stanley Park, a popular area.
Образуйте от слова ATTRACT однокоренное слово так, чтобы оно грамматически и лексически соответствовало содержанию текста.
In addition to being a major __________________ for Vancouver, the aquarium is a centre for marine research and conservation.
Образуйте от слова SCIENCE однокоренное слово так, чтобы оно грамматически и лексически соответствовало содержанию текста.
It was one of the first facilities to invite __________________ into the galleries to interpret animal behaviour.
Образуйте от слова EDUCATION однокоренное слово так, чтобы оно грамматически и лексически соответствовало содержанию текста.
So a visit to the aquarium is not only pleasant, but also __________________.
Образуйте от слова OWN однокоренное слово так, чтобы оно грамматически и лексически соответствовало содержанию текста.
The aquarium remains a nonprofit organisation. Its __________________ is the City of Vancouver.
Образуйте от слова TOUR однокоренное слово так, чтобы оно грамматически и лексически соответствовало содержанию текста.
The aquarium has been rented for $40,000 a year since 1991. This money and the entrance fees paid by __________________ support the aquarium financially.
You have received a letter from your English-speaking pen-friend Jasper who writes:
… My friends have just come back from a trip to Africa. It’s been my dream for years! What is your dream trip, where would you like to go and why? Whom would you like to take with you? What is the most difficult thing for you when you travel?
My sister is getting married …
Write a letter to Jasper.
In your letter:
− answer his questions;
− ask 3 questions about his sister.
Write 100–140 words.
Remember the rules of letter writing.
На следующей странице вам будет предложено проверить их самостоятельно.