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1
Задание 1 № 2109

Установите соответствие между заголовками 1–8 и текстами A–G. Запишите свои ответы в таблицу. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании есть один лишний заголовок.

 

1. Reason for extension

2. Presents begin to enrich the collection

3. New collections for the new building

4. New field for the old museum

5. Shift towards history

6. First famous exhibits

7. One on the basis of two

8. Location of the museum

 

A. The present Ashmolean Museum was created in 1908 by combining two ancient Oxford institutions: the University Art Collection and the original Ashmolean Museum. The older partner in this merger, the University Art Collection, was based for many years in what is now the Upper Reading Room in the Bodleian Library.

 

B. The collection began modestly in the 1620s with a handful of portraits and curiosities displayed in a small room on the upper floor. In the 17th century there were added notable collections of coins and medals later incorporated into the Ashmolean coin collection. The objects of curiosity included Guy Fawkes' lantern and a sword given by the Pope to Henry VIII, and a number of more exotic items.

 

C. In the 1660s and 70s, the collection grew rapidly and, in 1683, the Bodleian Gallery was left to develop as a museum of art. At first, it was a gallery of portraits of distinguished contemporaries, but from the mid 1660s, it began to acquire a more historical perspective with the addition of images of people from the past: college founders, scientists, soldiers, monarchs, writers and artists.

 

D. In the eighteenth century, several painters donated self-portraits. They also added a number of landscapes, historical paintings and scenes from contemporary life. Other donors, former members of the University, added collections of Old Masters so that by the early nineteenth century, it had become an art gallery of general interest and an essential point of call on the tourist map. The public was admitted on payment of a small charge. Catalogues were available at the entrance and the paintings were well displayed in a large gallery.

 

E. It was only with the gift of a collection of ancient Greek and Roman statuary from the Countess of Pomfret in 1755 that the need for a new art gallery became urgent. The marble figures were too heavy to be placed in an upstairs gallery and were installed in a dark ground-floor room in the library pending the creation of a new museum.

 

F. Before the new museum was finished, a major group of drawings by Raphael and Michelangelo was purchased by public subscription for the new galleries, establishing the importance of the Oxford museum as a centre for the study of Old Master drawings. The new museum also attracted gifts of paintings. In 1851, a collection of early Italian paintings, which included Uccello's "Hunt in the Forestone of the museum's major works of art was presented.

 

G. In the 1850s, the University established a new Natural History Museum, which is now known as the Oxford University Museum of Natural History. And all the natural history specimens from the Ashmolean were transferred to the new institution. Having lost what had become the most important element in its collection, the Ashmolean was to find a major new role in the emerging field of archaeology.

 

 

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2
Задание 1 № 2293

Установите соответствие между заголовками 1–8 и текстами A–G. Запишите свои ответы в таблицу. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании есть один лишний заголовок.

 

1. Use of a dead language

2. Violating regulations

3. Careless behaviour

4. Needs protection

5. Reaching a target audience

6. Let the air in

7. Original meaning

8. Using modern technology

 

A. Distance education or e-learning offers several advantages. Students participating in e-learning programs are often able to set their own schedules and work at their own pace. The learning experience can be supported by multimedia such as videos, interactive websites, and real-time conferencing with experts from anywhere in the world. Additionally, e-learning programs are less expensive than traditional ones.

 

B. Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm did not expect to create a children's collection of fairy tales. Instead, they wanted to preserve Germany's oral tradition by collecting different stories. Not until several editions of their collection were published did the brothers realize that children were to be a major audience. Once the Brothers Grimm saw this new public, they tried to refine and soften their tales, which had originated centuries earlier as folklore.

 

C. The five Potter books have sold 250 million copies worldwide in 55 languages, including Latin and Ancient Greek. In Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince, J. K. Rowlings uses spells and charms that are largely based on Latin. But one of the most serious spells, Avada Kedavra, may be a variant of «abracadabra». In the Harry Potter series, it is a spell that causes death. Harry Potter is the only one known to have survived it.

 

D. Critics of the Harry Potter books point out that the main characters who are supposed to be «good» are consistently and regularly portrayed as breaking all manner of ethical rules like those against lying, cheating, and stealing. They also regularly break school rules against behavior like going out at night, using magic in the Muggle world, and so forth.

 

E. On Christmas Eve of 1968, NASA astronaut William Anders, while orbiting the moon with the Apollo 8 mission, took a photograph that provided a foundation for the modern green movement. His photo shows a small, blue planet Earth peeking over the horizon of the Moon. The image of a small planet, alone in a vast ocean of space, showed billions of people the fragility of our planet and the importance of preserving and protecting Earth.

 

F. There are many indoor air pollutants that can be harmful. Indoor air can be up to 100 times more polluted than outdoor air. Organic compounds from some paints, carpets, synthetic fabrics and adhesives are a known health hazard, contributing to the disease known as Sick Building Syndrome. Proper technology can help — open windows to let fresh air in and bad air out.

 

G. Some people, especially in rural areas, burn their trash in pits or barrels. It seems an easy way to get rid of your garbage, but the smoke it creates has a lot of really unhealthy toxic chemicals. Burning things like foam cups, plastics, and colored and bleached paper in backyards or even fireplaces causes toxic smoke that can spread throughout the neighborhood.

 

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3
Задание 1 № 2431

Установите соответствие между заголовками 1–8 и текстами A–G. Запишите свои ответы в таблицу. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании есть один лишний заголовок.

 

1. How It All Began

2. Equal Rights for Comics!

3. European And Asian Varieties

4. No Longer Just for Children

5. Spider-Man Forever!

6. Time of Great Change

7. They Don’t Know What They Are Talking About

8. Birth of a Hero

 

A. Comic books are an important part of pop culture and loved by many. Just look at how many Hollywood films are based on superhero comics such as Spider- Man, Batman, Superman and others! However, some people mistakenly assume they are only for children or that they are only about superheroes. There are many wrong ideas about comics, and they often come from people who have never even read them.

 

B. Comics first appeared in the USA in the early 1900's as comic strips in newspapers. They were called 'comics' because they were about comical characters. Later they included adventure and crime stories and other genres, and became serialized. The more popular ones were printed in book format and were called comic books. These were especially common during the Great Depression. But they were often criticized for being 'literature for the illiterate'.

 

C. Comic books about crime fighters and criminals were in demand in the 1930's. One of them, Detective Comics, had a series about a man who dressed up as a bat to fight criminals. Fans loved him so much that eventually he had his own comic book and became known as Batman. Due to his success, other superheroes were soon invented. Superhero comics continued to grow in popularity and are now what people often associate comics with.

 

D. In the 1960's comic book writers began to experiment more. Some explored genres and themes not usually used for comics, others experimented with artwork, using more sophisticated styles. In the 70's and 80's these trends intensified and even the format changed. In 1978 Will Eisner wrote A Contract with God, the first full book length comic. Such works were no longer called comic books, but graphic novels.

 

E. Nowadays there are a great variety of comic books that are radically different from the original comic strips in newspapers. They have also become more acceptable in society: earlier, if you were not a child but were interested in comics, you were looked down upon and could be called a geek or a nerd; now comic books have become largely mainstream. Comic book conventions where fans gather and even dress up as their favorite superheroes are very popular.

 

F. The USA is not the only country with a history of comic books. France and Japan have their own unique traditions. In France, comics are known as bandes desslnees and in Japan, manga. Each of these has its own style and history of development. The highly stylized Japanese manga characters with big eyes and brightly colored spiky hair have become just as popular around the world as comics in the west.

 

G. The medium of comics will undoubtedly continue to grow. Over time, the stereotypes that surround them will hopefully change. There is no reason for comics to be any different from other media such as books, films or paintings. Comics, like these other formats, will always produce bestsellers of little artistic merit, but there will also be masterpieces equivalent to great works of art or high literature.

 

 

 

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4
Задание 1 № 2478

Установите соответствие между заголовками 1–8 и текстами A–G. Запишите свои ответы в таблицу. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании есть один лишний заголовок.

 

1. Just Do It!

2. Just What the Doctor Ordered

3. Dangerous Consequences

4. Source of the Problem

5. Take It Easy!

6. Hard to Guess the Meaning

7. The Devil Is Not So Black As He is Painted

8. A Hidden Problem

 

A. You can often find articles and books addressing the problem of procrastination. If you don't know this word, you might think it was a terrible disease. In reality, procrastination can be defined as a bad habit of doing something less important in order to avoid doing something more important. People procrastinate in many different areas, but we will focus on procrastinating at school, where it is a frequent problem.

 

B. Procrastination at school can lead to poor grades, low test scores, and finally not getting into a good university. Another negative result of procrastination is the stress of waiting to the last minute to do something. This can lead to staying up all night to prepare for a test. Also, the constant stress of having something hanging over your head, being scolded and criticized by teachers and parents can lead to feelings of guilt and worthlessness.

 

C. Usually it is very obvious when somebody is procrastinating, for example, playing video games instead of doing homework. Sometimes, however, it can be less obvious. Sharpening your pencils and cleaning your desk may fool some people into thinking you are working hard, but can also be forms of procrastination. Some pupils are even able to fool themselves into thinking they are working, when they are just trying to avoid real work.

 

D. It is not always clear why people procrastinate. Some are just lazy or don't have enough willpower, but there may be other reasons, perfectionism for one. Some people are afraid that they will be judged by others as failures if their work is less than perfect. For example, a pupil may fear the judgment of parents and teachers on a school report. According to psychologists, this fear of failure may be a cause of procrastination.

 

E. Although it is difficult, there are ways to stop procrastinating. One way of doing it is to find out why you are procrastinating and deal with those problems. If you are a perfectionist, try to do the task quickly and not worry about it being perfect. Another solution, especially when the task seems too big, is to break it into smaller steps and do those one by one. This may lessen the desire to procrastinate.

 

F. Still, procrastinating can be a good thing. For those who spend much more time working on a project than is necessary, waiting until the last minute can be a more economical use of time. Also, some people while procrastinating do things that are creative or useful in other ways. Finally, a certain amount of procrastination is part of human nature. Feeling guilty about it can be worse and more damaging than the procrastination itself.

 

G. Procrastination is also a popular subject of laughter in films and TV shows and there are many coffee mugs, cartoons, and notebooks covered with jokes about it. Though many people consider it a serious psychological problem and even view it as a kind of disease, others laugh about it and are even proud to be procrastinators

 

 

 

 

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5
Задание 1 № 2554

Установите соответствие между заголовками 1–8 и текстами A–G. Запишите свои ответы в таблицу. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании есть один лишний заголовок.

 

1. A step to a wider variety

2. Varieties of theatre

3. Modern problems

4. Theatre and politics

5. Origin of theatre

6. Ladies enter

7. Not the least important

8. Stars for a repertoire

 

A. Modern Western theatre comes in large measure from ancient Greek drama, from which it takes technical terminology, classification into genres, and many of its themes, stock characters, and plot elements. The Greeks also developed the concepts of dramatic criticism, acting as a career, and theatre architecture. The theatre of ancient Greece consisted of three types of drama: tragedy, comedy, and the satyr play.

 

B. Western theatre developed and expanded considerably under the Romans. The Roman historian Livy wrote that the Romans first experienced theatre in the 4th century BC. The theatre of ancient Rome was a thriving and diverse art form, ranging from festival performances of street theatre, nude dancing, and acrobatics, to the staging of broadly appealing situation comedies, to the highstyle, verbally elaborate tragedies.

 

C. Theatre took on many different forms in the West between the 15th and 19th centuries, including commedia dell’arte and melodrama. The general trend was away from the poetic drama of the Greeks and the Renaissance and toward a more naturalistic prose style of dialogue, especially following the Industrial Revolution. Theatre today, broadly defined, includes performances of plays and musicals, ballets, operas and various other forms.

 

D. The eighteenth century in Britain introduced women to the stage, which would have been extremely inappropriate before. These women were looked at as celebrities but on the other hand, it was still very new and revolutionary that they were on the stage and some said they were unladylike and looked down n. Charles II did not like young men playing the parts of young women, so he asked that women play their own parts.

 

E. Theatre took a big pause during 1642 and 1660 in England because of Cromwell’s Interregnum. Theatre was seen as something sinful and the Puritans tried very hard to drive it out of their society. Because of this stagnant period, once Charles II came back to the throne in 1660, theatre (among other arts) exploded because of a lot of influence from France, where Charles was in exile the years previous to his reign.

 

F. Stagecraft is a term referring to the technical aspects of theatrical, film, and video production. It includes constructing scenery, hanging and focusing of lighting, design and procurement of costumes, makeup, props, stage management, and recording and mixing of sound. Considered a technical rather than an artistic field, it is equally crucial for the practical implementation of a designer’s artistic idea.

 

G. While most modern theatre companies rehearse one piece of theatre at a time, perform that piece for a set “run”, retire the piece, and begin rehearsing a new show, repertory companies rehearse multiple shows at one time. Repertory theatre generally involves a group of similarly accomplished actors, and relies more on the reputation of the group than on an individual star actor.

 

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